Dhamma, Sanskrit dharma, is a word with multiple meanings. Generally it is used to refer to the whole corpus of the Buddha's teachings. In this sense the Dhamma is the second of the three Refuges. It is also used in the sense of `truth', `actuality' or `the way things are'. In the word abhidhamma, and dhammànupassanà, it means `things' or `objects', particularly mental objects, i.e. thoughts, psychological tendencies and emotions. Another common meaning of dhamma is `justice' or `righteousness'. Thus, in the Buddhist tradition, a good or righteous king was called Dhammaràjà. The Dhamma in the sense of the Buddha's teachings is described as `seen here and now, timeless, inviting investigation, leading onwards, to be understood by the wise, each for himself' (M.I,37). The Buddha described his Dhamma as being `lovely in the beginning, lovely in the middle and lovely at the end' (Vin.I,20) and said that `the gift of Dhamma excels all other gifts' (Dhp.354). The `Jàtaka says the Dhamma `protects those who practise Dhamma, as a great umbrella protects in time of rain'(Ja.IV,55). Some centuries after the Buddha, King Asoka defined the ethical dimension of the Dhamma very beautifully as `little evil, much good, kindness, generosity, truthfulness and purity'.